Monthly Archives: March 2012

Philips Analysis of Needs – Performance Analysis

After discussing Rummler & Brache’s Organizational Analysis, we come to the second methodology of doing performance analysis.  The Philips Analysis of Needs based on upon the following approach:


Performance Analysis Needs - Performance Analysis

In Philips Needs Analysis, individual needs are linked to training needs, the training needs are in turn linked to the job performance needs, which is in turn linked to Business Needs.

Individual/Job holders needs need to be analyzed based on the performance planning checklist discussed under “Planning for Performance Management” post in the blog.  It is very important to track individual performance on a weekly basis to be able to understand the progress being made by the individual and this needs to be done by the immediate manager.  Deficits if any should be analyzed immediately and caused assigned to the same. We will be discussing “Cause Analysis” in detail in our subsequent blogs. Once Cause Analysis of Performance Deficit has been done it is very easy to find out the training requirement for the individual.

The individual needs then need to calibrated against the training needs.,for example, if the individual needs to be working on projects but is not PMP certified or the person has to be working on balanced scorecard approach but does not know anything about finance, etc. This needs need to tracked and recorded at least once in a month instead of waiting until the performance appraisal cycle to completed and then taking action.

Once the training needs have been identified, they need to be traced against the job needs so that there is complete sync in between individual needs, job needs and training needs.  The training needs can be based on skills, knowledge and attitude. We will discussing the same under Kirkpatricks Evaluation level in detail.

The Job Performance Needs as discussed in the previous blogs needs to be based on Business Needs.

The performance planning cycle works best when the planning is done in “Top-Down” manner.  The business needs to be penned down first, followed by department/process level performance planning, followed by individual plans.  When we talk about Philips Analysis Needs, it works best when we use it to decide the kind of training intervention a individual would require for him to perform better.  Whereas “Rummler Brache’s Organizational Level” works best when we are deciding on the objectives as well as when we are tracking performance on three different levels.  It is very important to understand the context against which each form of Performance Analysis Techniques can be used to be able to utilize them in completeness.

We will discussing how intricately Philips Analysis Needs and Kirkpatricks Evaluation Level are linked in my next post!

Happy Reading until then!


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Performance Analysis – Rummler and Brache’s Organizational Level Analysis

The  Rummler and Brache’s Organizational Level Analysis is based on two core concepts:

  1. The Three Levels of Performance.
  2. The Three Performance Dimension.

The Three Levels of Performance:  Consists of monitoring performance at Job/Performer level, Process Level and Organizational level.  These three levels are intricately depended on each other. Any change in strategy will result in change in process and which in turn will change the job responsibilities at the person level. Failure to successfully link the person-process-organization will result in poor performance.

The Three Performance Dimensions: The three performance dimensions are goals, design, and management. It is important to have job/performer linked to clear goals, similarly it is important to have goals defined for the process as well as the organization.   Apart from having clear goals, it is very important to have robust design at each level. A process which is robust in design is able to operate efficiently under various conditions.  Designing processes which are robust, scablable and reliable is very important in order to avoid making the process “person-dependent” on one hand and to build an organization which can withstand the pressures of constantly changing business environment on the other hand. Having good management at all the levels ensures that the organization is able to thrive and withstand challenging situations in business environment.

Rummler and Brache’s link the three levels and three dimensions to form the “nine boxes model.”

The Nine Boxes Model
Goals Design Management
Organization Strategy, operating plans, and metrics. Organization structure and overall business model. Performance review practices and management culture.
Process Customer and business requirements. Process design, systems design, and workspace design. Process ownership, process management, and continuous improvement.
Performer Job specifications, performance metrics, and individual development plans. Job roles and responsibilities, skill requirements, procedures, tools, and training. Performance feedback, consequences, coaching, and support.
The Nine-Boxes Model links the Performer to goals in form of Job specifications, performance metrics, and individual development plans. It links the Performer to Design in form of Job roles and responsibilities, skill requirements, procedures, tools, and training.  It links the Performer to Management in form of Performance feedback, consequences, coaching, and support.
The Nine Boxes model links the Process to goals in form of Customer and business requirements. It links the Process to Design in form of Process design, systems design, and workspace design. It links Process to Management in terms of Process ownership, process management, and continuous improvement.
The Nine Boxes model links the Organization to Goals in form of Strategy, operating plans, and metrics. It links the Organization to Design in form of Organization structure and overall business model. It links the Organization to Management in form of Performance review practices and management culture.
The Rummler and Brache model is one of the most effective way of linking the Person-Process-Organization.
More information on the same can be read from the following links:
In the ensuing blog, we will be discussing Philips Analysis Need!
Happy Reading!

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Managing Performance Issues

As discussed in the previous blog, there are two ways of managing performance issues:

  • The first way is by taking a proactive stance by regularly meeting, discussing KPIs, unearthing the red signals well in advance so that counter measures can be taken immediately.  This is the right way for monitoring and should be the preferred way.
  • The second way is by correcting the performance problems as they arise within the organization. This is more of a postmortem which is done after an event is over.  This approach involves identifying the root cause and secondly, implementing a plan of action to correct the problem.

We are going to discuss managing performance problems as they arise withing organization today.

When there is lack of performance you need to do two kinds of analysis

  • Analysis of Performance
  • Analysis of Cause

Performance Analysis: Done to identify the gap between Desired Performance and Actual Performance.  It is important to maintain operational dashboards by linking performance to tangible numbers in order to monitor the same.  We cannot do performance analysis unless we link performance to tangible results.

Performance Analysis can be done in 3 ways:

  • Rummler & Brache’s Organizational Level
  • Phillip’s Analysis Needs 
  • Kirpatrick’s Evaluation Level

Cause Analysis:  Cause analysis is intended to find out the cause for gaps in performance.  There are several ways of doing cause analysis to find out what might have gone wrong for the performance to get impacted in an adverse manner. Doing cause analysis is very important not only from performance management point of view but also in managing projects, teams, etc.

Here is a comprehensive list of techniques that can be used for “Cause Analysis”

  • Fishbone diagram
  • Five by five whys
  • Cause and effect matrix
  • Event and causal factor analysis.
  • Change analysis
  • Barrier analysis
  • MORT
  • Human performance evaluation 
In the ensuing blog, we shall learn “Performance Analysis” In detail!
Happy Reading!

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